Mindfulness and Meditation for Stress Reduction

Reducing the effects of stress on your body requires more than just taking a break from the situations that stress you. Relaxation in the body is what will take your nervous system out of the stress response.

There are many ways to achieve relaxation. This post focuses on using mindfulness and meditation for calming your body and mind so that you can turn off the stress response in your nervous system.

If you’re looking for more ways to manage stress naturally, join the Simple Stress Reduction Facebook group.

Well...yes, they do really work. The fact is, science shows definite health benefits for people who use mindfulness and meditation.

Before we dive in, let’s just make sure we’re on the same page when we say “mindfulness” and “meditation.”

“Meditation” is the ancient practice of connecting the body and mind to become more self-aware and present. It’s often used to calm the mind, ease stress, and relax the body.

Practicing “mindfulness” is one of the most popular ways to meditate. It’s defined as “paying attention in a particular way, on purpose, in the present moment, non-judgmentally.”

Mindfulness meditation is well studied in terms of its health benefits. I’m going to talk about a few of them below, and refer to it as “mindfulness” for the rest of the post.

The link between mindfulness and health = stress reduction

Have you heard the staggering statistics on how many doctors' visits are due to stress? Seventy-five to ninety percent!

So, if you ask me, it makes a ton of sense that anything that can reduce stress can reduce health issues too.

Mindfulness reduces inflammation, reduces levels of the stress hormone cortisol, and improves sleep. All of these can have massive effects on your physical and mental health.

I'll briefly go over the research in three main areas: mood, weight, and gut health. But know that the research on the health benefits of mindfulness is branching into many other exciting new areas too.

Mindfulness for mood

The most immediate health benefit of mindfulness is improved mood.

In one study, people who took an 8-week mindfulness program had greater improvement in symptoms according to the “Hamilton Anxiety Scale.” They were compared with people who took a stress management program that did not include mindfulness. It seems that the mindfulness training was key to lowering symptoms.

Other studies show that mindfulness has similar effects as antidepressant medications for some people with mild to moderate symptoms of depression.

While mindfulness isn’t a full-fledged cure, it can certainly help to improve moods.

Mindfulness for weight

Studies show that people who use mind-body practices, including mindfulness, have lower BMIs (Body Mass Indices).

How can this be?

One way mindfulness is linked with lower weight is due to stress-reduction. Mindfulness can reduce stress-related and emotional overeating. It can also help reduce cravings and binge eating.

Another way it can work for weight is due to "mindful eating." Mindful eating is a "non-judgmental awareness of physical and emotional sensations associated with eating." It's the practice of being more aware of food and the eating process. It's listening more deeply to how hungry and full you actually are. It's not allowing yourself to be distracted with other things while you're eating, like what's on TV or your smartphone (try that one out and let me know how you do!)

People with higher mindfulness scores also reported smaller serving sizes of energy-dense foods. So it seems that more mindful eating = less junk.

Mindfulness about food and eating can have some great benefits for your weight.

Mindfulness for gut health

Recent studies show a link between stress, stress hormones, and changes in gut microbes (your friendly bacteria and other critters that help your digestion). In theory, mindfulness-based stress reduction could be a way to help prevent negative changes in the gut's microbes.

Also, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) seems to be linked with both stress and problems with gut microbes. In one study, people with IBS who received mindfulness training showed greater reductions in IBS symptoms than the group who received standard medical care.

The research here is just starting to show us the important link between stress, gut health, and how mindfulness can help.

Conclusion

Science is confirming some amazing health benefits of the ancient practice of mindfulness meditation. For moods, weight, gut health, and more.

Do you regularly include it in your life? If so, have you seen benefits? If not, would you consider trying it?

Let me know in the comments below.

Recipe (Relaxing Teas): Relaxing Herbal Teas

There are many relaxing herbal teas that would be great after meditation.

Try any of these by steeping in boiling water:

  • Green tea (has a bit of caffeine, or you can choose decaffeinated green tea)
  • White tea (also has a bit of caffeine, or you can choose decaffeinated white tea)
  • Rooibos tea (a red tea that’s high in antioxidants and vitamin C)
  • Peppermint tea (or steep fresh peppermint leaves)
  • Ginger tea (or steep slices of real ginger)

Serve & enjoy!

Tip: You can add a touch of honey if desired.

BONUS Guided Meditation “Recipes” (videos, apps & podcasts)

  1. How to Meditate video
  1. How to Meditate in One Minute or Less Every Day video
  1. Calm App
  1. Headspace App (free 10-day trial)
  1. Daily Meditation Podcast
  1. Hay House Meditations Podcast

References:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meditation

https://www.dietvsdisease.org/benefits-mindfulness-meditation/

https://nccih.nih.gov/health/meditation/overview.htm

https://authoritynutrition.com/mindful-eating-guide/

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3341916/

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4454654/

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26186434

Signs You Have a Hormone Imbalance & What To Do About It

Listen up! If you’re under a lot of stress I want you to pay close attention to this post.

Stress is so common in our society that we have a tendency to think it’s no big deal, which couldn’t be farther from the truth. Pressure at work, managing a family and professional career, building a business, or working towards a promotion are all sources of stress (this list is far from being exhaustive). Life is constantly throwing us situations that can create stress in our lives. It’s up to each of us to manage stress appropriately so that we can take control of our health before things get out of hand.

Here’s the tricky thing… often we don’t notice that stress is going unmanaged until it’s too late. Read this post and if this sounds like you, join my Simple Stress Reduction Facebook group where you’ll find tips and for managing stress in simple ways that enhance your quality of life.

Hormones are like chemical messengers, and govern nearly every cellular action in our body.

While very important, our sex hormones like estrogen, progesterone and testosterone, are actually not essential for our survival.

They’re responsible for sexual functioning and fertility, as well as in more of a “beauty” capacity - keeping our skin, hair & nails vital and youthful looking.

On the other hand, stress hormones (like cortisol & epinephrine, also known as adrenaline) are critical to our survival because they synthesize proteins, maintain cellular electrolyte balance, regulate heartbeat and blood pressure, and transport glucose into our cells - essentially feeding our brain.

These hormones are so crucial, that in times of chronic stress, cortisol (the “hormone of stress”) will be made at the expense of sex hormones. This is super important to understand. Your body literally steals from your sex hormones to make cortisol. While our sex hormones aren’t necessary for survival, we’ll definitely notice symptoms if they’re out of balance. No wonder we can start feeling like things are really out of whack when we’re stressed!

So what happens when hormones stop playing well together?

We can often experience a ripple effect, even when there’s a slight hiccup in hormone function.

Also, due to the fact that the interconnected nature of your endocrine system, one hormonal imbalance can lead to an additional one, causing multiple symptoms and overlapping health issues.

The 10 most common signs that you probably have a hormonal imbalance

  1. Poor sleep - not being able to fall asleep or stay asleep
  2. Fatigue that’s not alleviated by sleep
  3. Night sweats and hot flashes
  4. Resistant excess weight and body fat, especially around the belly
  5. Low libido or sexual dysfunction
  6. Acne or other skin issues
  7. PMS symptoms
  8. Foggy thinking (brain fog!) and difficulty concentrating
  9. Mental health issues - depression and anxiety in particular
  10. Mood changes like irritability and anger

The main causes of hormonal imbalances

While there are many causes, here are the most common ones that have been identified:

  • Age and stage of life
  • Chronic stress
  • Medications (e.g. the Pill)
  • Toxins and endocrine disruptors like xenoestrogens
  • Poor nutrition and lack of adequate key nutrients
  • Blood sugar regulation problems
  • Disrupted circadian rhythm
  • Chronic inflammation (e.g. leaky gut & digestive system inflammation)

Simple ways to support and rebalance your hormones naturally

While having a hormonal imbalance can seem like a complicated issue (and in some cases it is). There are simple steps that you can take to support your body in returning to normal levels.

Eat whole foods: processed, packaged foods offering little to no nutritional value will also offer little to no fuel for your hormones.

Be sure to eat fresh over packaged foods, including plenty of vegetables, fruits, and quality sources of free range and grass fed meats and eggs. Also, if tolerated - nuts, seeds, and legumes in moderation.

Note: Grains and dairy may cause or exacerbate hormonal problems for some people.

Eat more healthy fats: Healthy fats are essential for hormonal health because sex hormones need fat as a building block - and your body can only use the ones you give it.

Opt for sources of healthy fats from whole foods, such as avocados, raw nuts & seeds, coconut oil, extra virgin olive oil, real butter or ghee (grass fed preferable), wild-caught salmon, and free range eggs - yes, you can eat the yolks!

Exercise daily: Moving your body on a regular basis, engaging in resistance (or strength) training, and incorporating a specific workout called HIIT (high intensity interval training) has been proven to be especially beneficial for keeping our bodies AND our hormones fit.

Better sleep: getting deeper, more restorative sleep can be the key to supporting your hormones, above all other measures (but that doesn’t mean you should ignore the other ones!).

Stress management & self-care: the truth is - stress can be devastating for hormonal health.

We need to equip ourselves to manage the stress and “business” of everyday life through the actions that bring back balance and wellbeing to our bodies AND our minds - like good nutrition, exercise and sleep!

Learn better coping mechanisms (like breathing techniques), practice mindfulness and incorporate some daily self-care.

Looking for more tips to manage stress naturally? Join my Simple Stress Reduction Facebook group.

References

https://draxe.com/benefits-high-intensity-interval-training/

https://www.womenshealthnetwork.com/hormonalimbalance/what-is-hormonal-imbalance.aspx

Recipe: Hormone-friendly Chocolate Fat Bombs

Ingredients:

½ cup almond or other nut butter, no sugar-added (if nut-sensitive, use sesame tahini or sunflower seed butter)
½ cup virgin coconut oil
3 Tbsp. raw, unprocessed cacao powder
stevia or monk fruit to sweeten to taste
silicone candy mould or mini-muffin pan

Optional add-ins:

  • splash of real vanilla extract or vanilla powder
  • cinnamon or ginger
  • pinch of Himalayan pink salt or Celtic grey salt

Directions

  1. In a large skillet melt coconut oil and nut butter over low heat.
  2. Stir in cacao powder and desired sweetener.
  3. Remove from heat and add vanilla (+ other add-ins), if using.
  4. You may want to pour mixture into a “spouted” cup to make pouring easier.
  5. Pour mixture into silicone candy molds or mini-muffin pan (about 1 Tb of mixture)
  6. Put in freezer or fridge until set.
  7. Remove from molds and store in the fridge in an airtight container.

Note that each fat bomb is considered a full serving of fat - great for curbing the appetite, satisfying a sweet tooth and supporting your hormones with the building blocks they need!

Is Stress Messing With Your Health?

I’ve always been an achiever. In grade school I’d study and re-do school projects while other kids played. When I started my career, I’d stretch myself to meet deadlines, even if that meant sacrificing my nutrition or sleep.

The result? ---> Any time I put my all into achieving something I’d let everything else slip & end up feeling like total GARBAGE.

Finally, I realized that to get to where I wanted, I had to confront my habits so that I could achieve the success and lifestyle I wanted.

This post shares some common signs of stress and a few simple techniques to help you manage. If this post resonates with you, it’s time to look at the stress you’re under and do something about managing it.

I’m here to help – book your FREE Take Control of Your Life Breakthrough Call with me and we’ll discuss your stressors and how they’re affecting your health. You’ll leave with clarity on what’s really stressing you and next steps for dealing with it.

We all have some level of stress.

It may be temporary (acute), or long-term (chronic).

Acute stress usually won’t mess with your health too much. It is your body’s natural reaction to circumstances, and can even be life-saving.

Then, when the “threat” (a.k.a. “stressor”) is gone, the reaction subsides, and all is well.

It's the chronic stress that's a problem. You see, your body has specific stress reactions. If these stress reactions are triggered every day or many times a day that can mess with your health.

Stress (and stress hormones) can have a huge impact on your health.

Let's dive into the "stress mess."

Mess #1 - Increased risk of heart disease and diabetes

Why save the best for last? Anything that increases the risk for heart disease and diabetes (both serious, chronic conditions) needs to be discussed.

Stress increased the risk for heart disease and diabetes by promoting chronic inflammation, affecting your blood "thickness," as well as how well your cells respond to insulin.

Mess #2 - Immunity

Did you notice that you get sick more often when you're stressed? Maybe you get colds, cold sores, or even the flu more frequently when you are stressed?

Well, that's because stress hormones affect the chemical messengers (cytokines) secreted by immune cells consequently, they are less able to do their jobs effectively.

Mess #3 - "Leaky Gut."

Stress can contribute to leaky gut, otherwise known as "intestinal permeability." These "leaks" can then allow partially digested food, bacteria or other things to be absorbed into your body.

The stress hormone cortisol can open up tiny holes by loosening the grip your digestive cells have to each other.

Picture this: Have you ever played "red rover?" It's where a row of children hold hands while one runs at them to try to break through. Think of those hands as the junctions between cells. When they get loose, they allow things to get in that should be passing right though. Cortisol (produced in excess in chronic stress) is a strong player in red rover!

Mess #4 - Sleep Disruption

Stress and sleep go hand-in-hand (you’ll be highly aware of this if you’ve spent nights awake worrying). It’s often difficult to sleep when you have very important (and stressful) things on your mind.

And when you don't get enough sleep, it affects your energy level, memory, ability to think, and mood.

More and more research is showing just how important sleep is for your health.  Not enough sleep (and too much stress) aren't doing you any favours.

If this sounds familiar, it’s time to take a look at the stressors in your life and what you can do to eliminate unmanaged stress. Book your FREE Take Control of Your Life Breakthrough Call with Selina to find out how to identify unmanaged stress and what to do about it.

Selina will help you see your stress patterns and you’ll leave with clarity on what to do to feel in control, and calm so you can take on your life.

Stress-busting tips

Reducing stressors in your life is an obvious first step. Can you:

  • Put less pressure on yourself?
  • Ask for help?
  • Say "no"?
  • Delegate to someone else?
  • Finally, make that decision?

No matter how hard you try, you won’t eliminate stress altogether. So, here are a few things you can try to help reduce its effect on you:

  • Deep breathing
  • Meditation
  • Walk in nature
  • Unplug (read a book, take a bath)
  • Exercise (yoga, tai chi, etc.)
  • Connect with loved ones

Conclusion

Stress is a huge and often underappreciated factor in our health. It can impact your physical body much more than you might realize.

Stress has been shown to increase the risk for heart disease and diabetes, affect your immune system, digestion and sleep.

There are things you can do to both reduce stressors and also to improve your response to it.

You can ditch that stress mess!

Recipe (relaxing chamomile): Chamomile Peach Iced Tea

Serves 1

1 cup steeped chamomile tea, cooled
1 peach, diced

Place both ingredients into a blender and blend until smooth. Add ice if desired.

Serve & enjoy!

Tip: You can use fresh or frozen peaches.

References:

https://nccih.nih.gov/health/stress

https://www.thepaleomom.com/stress-undermines-health/

http://www.precisionnutrition.com/good-stress-bad-stress

https://www.thepaleomom.com/managing-stress/

What You Need to Know About Elimination Diets

If you’re experiencing symptoms and can’t seem to find a cause, an elimination diet might a good next step for you. Food intolerances, allergies and sensitivities can express in so many different ways it can be hard to track down what food is causing which symptom. This is especially the case if you’re eating foods that packaged foods or meals that have been prepared for you outside your home.

Symptoms like brain fog, fatigue, chronic sinus congestion, eczema or skin irritation, bloating, and even headaches can all be traced back to food sensitivities. The tricky thing is that the symptoms of these sensitivities might not appear for days after you’ve eaten the foods, which makes it hard to track down the culprit. In this case doing a careful elimination diet is a great way to monitor your intake and identify offending foods.

As difficult as it might be to follow a strict protocol for 4-6 weeks, the stress that a food sensitivity puts on your body is much worse in the long run. This post covers some pros and cons of the diet so you can be prepared going in.

Our digestive system is the main portal into our bodies. Lots of things can come in that aren't good for us. And because the system is so complex (discerning which tiny molecules to absorb, and which keep out), lots can go wrong. And that's one reason why 70% of our immune system lives in and around our digestive system.

This makes food allergies, sensitivities, and intolerances a huge contribution to an array of symptoms all over our bodies. Things like autoimmune issues, inflammation, and even our moods can be affected by what we eat. If you have digestive issues or any other unexplained symptoms, you may consider trying an elimination diet.

An elimination diet is one where you strategically eliminate certain foods to see if you react to them. It can help immensely when trying to figure out if a particular food is causing symptoms because you’re sensitive to it.

You generally start out by eliminating the most common food allergens for a few weeks. Then you slowly add them back one at a time and note any symptoms (better or worse).

Let’s go over the pros and cons of this diet.

Pros of elimination diets

The main benefit is that, by tuning into your body's reactions to certain foods, you can pinpoint sensitivities and intolerances that you may not otherwise know of. Experiencing results first-hand can be very motivating when it comes to sticking to eliminating a certain food.

Elimination diets can be less expensive, and in some cases more reliable, than standard allergy testing.

It can also be very empowering to be in control of what you eat, to learn about food and the compounds they contain, and try new recipes that exclude eliminated foods. Having a good plan makes things much easier (even exciting). If you love grocery shopping, cooking from scratch, and trying new recipes, you’re going to draw on all these skills.

These diets can be customizable, which is a great pro (see first con below).

Cons of elimination diets

You may not figure out everything you're sensitive to. Your plan should be strategically created to ensure that the most common food allergens are eliminated. This will give you the highest likelihood of success. It can become complicated if you let it.

It's a commitment for around 4-6 weeks, if not longer (which can be difficult for some people).

If you’re not used to tracking all foods and all symptoms every day, you’re going to have to start. Tracking your food intake is the best way to identify patterns that might go along with your symptoms. (Hint: food intolerance symptoms can appear up to 3 days after ingesting the offending food).

You may find that you're intolerant to one of your favourite foods, or even an entire group of your favourite foods.

When you're eliminating certain foods (or parts of foods, like gluten), it can be tricky. You’ll need to be strict with your food intake while on the elimination diet. This might mean  preparing all your foods, snacks and drinks yourself from scratch. If you don't take full control like this, it can be so easy to accidentally ingest something that you're cutting out. And at that point, you might need to start all over again.

Conclusion

Elimination diets can be a very useful tool to identify food sensitivities. They can be empowering and customized.

However, they can be difficult to adhere to and you’ll need to be strict about your food intake during the 4-6 week time period in order to find accurate results.

Have you done an elimination diet? What was your experience? Let me know in the comments below.

Recipe (Elimination diet friendly): Steamed Salmon and Vegetables

Serves 2

2 medium zucchini, sliced thinly
½ pint mushrooms, sliced
2 tsp coconut oil (melted)
4 tsp water
2 boneless, skinless salmon fillets (no more than 1 ¼ “ thick)
½ clove garlic, diced
2 dashes salt & pepper

Instructions

Preheat oven to 450F.

Toss vegetables with coconut oil. Tear two sheets of parchment paper and fold in half. Open the sheets and place half of the vegetables onto each sheet on one side of the fold.

Add 2 teaspoons of water and place a fillet on top. Top with garlic, salt, and pepper.

Fold the other half of each sheet over the fish, and tightly crimp the edges.

Put packets flat on a baking sheet and bake for 10-15 minutes.

Remove from oven and check to ensure fish flakes easily with a fork (be careful the steam is hot).

Open each pack and place onto plates.

Serve & enjoy!

Tip: You can mix up the vegetables or herbs following your elimination diet guidelines.

References:

https://www.precisionnutrition.com/elimination-diet

http://www.dietvsdisease.org/11-warning-signs-you-have-a-food-intolerance/

What is Processed Food?

There’s a ton of conflicting nutrition information out there. It seems like there are 1,000 different diets and they all tell us to do something different. Eat meat! Eat plants! Avoid carbs! Eat less fat! No wonder we can’t make sense of it all.

Curiously though, there is one thing that pretty much all of the diets out there agree on:

Eating whole foods.

That’s right. Whole foods, minimally processed, they make it onto our plates as close to the way they occur in nature.

Yet, we live in a world of convenience. And when you’re working long days, traveling for work, and you’re not done even once you’re home from the office, it can be tempting to reach for things that are more convenient than whole foods.

Oh and food cravings… those are rarely for healthy whole foods.

Enter processed foods. How bad are they? What makes a food qualify as processed? I hear these questions often, so I thought I'd share the answers with you below...

The world of food can be so confusing at times. There was a time when it was clear what food was - it came directly from nature - whether foraging, hunting, or farming.

Now there are so many things we eat that don't resemble a natural food.

Michael Pollan has a famous quote, he said:

“Eat Food - Not too much - Mostly Plants.”

And in his famous book, In Defense of Food, he defines what food should be. He says, "Don't eat anything your great-great-grandmother wouldn't recognize as food."

And, we can all agree that some things are obviously not recognizable by our great-great-grandmothers: candy bars, fast food, and sports drinks.

We can also say that many of the common health issues we face today: heart disease, diabetes, some cancers, cavities, etc. didn't exist at anywhere near the rates before industrially processed foods became available.

But, where do we draw the line? How do we define processed? How processed is processed? And what the heck is ultra-processed?

Allow me to let you in on the internationally recognized classification system. And we’re going to go through it step-by-step with an apple.

Unprocessed

According to NOVA, the official definition of unprocessed or natural foods is:

"The edible parts of plants (seeds, fruits, leaves, stems, roots) or of animals(muscle, offal, eggs, milk), and also fungi, algae, and water, after separation from nature."

This is like eating a whole apple right off the tree - clearly unprocessed.

Minimally processed

Minimally processed foods are:

"natural foods altered by processes such as removal of inedible or unwanted parts, drying, crushing, grinding, fractioning, filtering, roasting, boiling, pasteurization, refrigeration, freezing, placing in containers, vacuum packaging, or nonalcoholic fermentation. None of these processes adds substances such as salt, sugar, oils or fats to the original food."

So, with our apple example, once you cut the apple's core out and put the slices into a container to bring with you for your afternoon snack, you are processing it - minimally. You can even peel and boil that chopped apple to make applesauce. And, as long as you don't add anything else (like cinnamon), it's still considered minimally processed.

Processed

Processed foods, on the other hand, are relatively simple products made by adding sugar, oil, salt or other processed ingredients to unprocessed foods.

"Most processed foods have two or three ingredients. Processes include various preservation or cooking methods, and, in the case of bread and cheese, non-alcoholic fermentation. The main purpose of the manufacture of processed foods is to increase the durability of unprocessed foods, or to modify or enhance their sensory qualities."

So, if you take that applesauce, add cinnamon, and/or use it in a recipe, you technically have processed the apple.

This can still be a healthy choice (depending on the quality of the ingredients added) as you'll see in the next definition of ultra-processed.

Ultra-processed

Here's where things get interesting and scary!

Ultra-processed foods are:

"Industrial formulations typically with five or more and usually many ingredients. Such ingredients often include those also used in processed foods, such as sugar, oils, fats, salt, anti-oxidants, stabilizers, and preservatives. Ingredients only found in ultra-processed products include substances not commonly used in culinary preparations, and additives whose purpose is to imitate sensory qualities of [unprocessed] foods ... or to disguise undesirable sensory qualities of the final product. [Unprocessed] foods are a small proportion of or are even absent from ultra-processed products."

So, pre-packaged apple strudel with a long shelf life is very much an ultra-processed food. If you took a look at the ingredient list of pre-packaged apple strudel (one with a long shelf life), you would see added sugars, oils, preservatives, and flavour enhancers. And we can argue that the healthy apple is a small (very small) proportion of the strudel.

Conclusion

There is a clear delineation between unprocessed (the apple) and ultra-processed (the pre-packaged strudel with a long shelf life) foods. An apple is nowhere near what a mass produced apple strudel is. But, there are a couple of different categories in between these - namely minimally processed and processed.

It’s clear that unprocessed (apple) and minimally processed (plain applesauce) foods are almost always quite healthy and nutritious. It's also clear that ultra-processed food is not so healthy.

Now that you know the definitions of these foods, I think you'll agree with me that the commonly used term processed is often referring to the industrial ultra-processing of foods.

I’d love to hear your thought on these definitions. Let me know in the comments below.

Recipe (minimally processed): Slow-Cooker Applesauce

Serves 16

4 lbs apples, washed and chopped
¾ cup water

Instructions:

Place apples and water in a large pot.

Bring to a boil and simmer until apples are soft about 20 minutes.

Blend or mash the apples into desired consistency.

Serve & enjoy!

Tip: Add some cinnamon for extra flavour, and use the applesauce to make overnight oats.

References:

http://www.summertomato.com/processed-food-vs-real-food

http://archive.wphna.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/WN-2016-7-1-3-28-38-Monteiro-Cannon-Levy-et-al-NOVA.pdf